Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Reform land tenure to promote agriculture growth and food security

Land tenure is an institution, i.e. the rules that govern the legal and customary relationship among people with respect to land. These rules define access to use rights, control, transfer, obligations and restraints to land. Secure land tenure means possessing fully exclusive and transferable property rights. This creates a strong incentive to invest in among others fixed improvements to increase land productivity. Insecure land tenure discourages private investment and overall economic growth.

In Africa, many rural households rely on land for their livelihoods. Land is therefore critical for food security and poverty eradication. Increased access to land (with all other factors held constant) leads to an increase in agricultural activities such as food (and cash crop) production hence income growth and food security. In the contrary, loss of access to land reduces food production and income. Again, long term guaranteed access to exclusive use rights to land promotes resource use which results in more efficient and profitable agricultural production, therefore increasing food availability and income.

Inappropriate land policies are a constraint to growth and development and put the disadvantaged at risk of food insecurity. For example, many African communities have customary systems, where land is owned and controlled by traditional practices. Customary leaders will, at their discretion, lease or rent land out to whomever they deem worthy. Recently in Ghana, hundreds of farmers have had their land forcefully taken over by a biofuel firm which bought the land from the chiefs. There was apparently no consultation with the farmers who have not yet been compensated. This has caused a major food security issue for the affected farmers. In open access systems, there is no incentive to invest in good farming practices and fixed improvements as benefits will accrue to free-riders who do not contribute to developing the gains. For example in communal grazing areas, with unrestricted land use, high stocking rates lead to soil erosion and land degradation. This reduces productivity of the land in question and will necessitate the conversion of marginal land into productive use, thus causing further environmental damage. The reduced productivity has an effect on food security and income generation. In some areas, absence of land markets translates into the underutilization of land and land-based resources. Land markets may facilitate the transfer of land to the most effective users.

Food security and poverty reduction policies must take into consideration the links that access to land and land systems have with food availability, hunger, access to income/capital, and poverty. Land policies should take into account livelihoods, environmental issues and markets as these are directly linked to food availability and access.

2 comments:

  1. I want every herpes patient to please read my testimony, my name is SARAH MORGAN and I am from California in the USA, I contracted genital herpes from my ex boyfriend who never had any symptoms. I have had it for 4 months now., and it has affected my life. I have told my boyfriends who I trusted about it and I have never had a bad reaction, it has affected my new relationships with Smith and people think herpes is really a minor skin irritation herpes has a long term effects on health. The stigma attached to this virus by ignorant people is ridiculous. Most people have herpes in one form or another. I would like to advise people on how I get rid of my herpes and I was reading a comment on the internet,and I saw a testimony posted by a woman from Germany that she get rid of her herpes with the help of DR AHKIGBE and so I was so happy when I saw that post, that his herbal medication is free and I quickly collected the herbal doctor email and I email him within 3 hr he respond to my email and I explain things to him he told me not to worry that he is going to cure me totally with his herbal medicine he only request for little money that he will use to buy the items for the preparation of the herbal medicine, wish I send to him because the pain was too much for me to bear and after some days he told me that he has prepare the herbal medicine, that I should send him my address that he want to sent it to me via DHL or FED-EX that was how I got the herbal medication and I use it as I was told and after few days I found out that my herpes was no more, i went to hospital for confirmation and it was true really that was how i got my cured. DR AKHIGBE also cure other deadly diseases like,  HIV/AIDS, HERPES, DIABETES,CANCER, ALS, ASTHMA, WEAK BODY,  HEPATITIS A&B, DENGUE FEVER, RABIES, MARBURG  DISEASE, THYROID, ARTHRITIS, MENINGITIS ,LUPUS, EPILEPSY, CHRONIC DISEASE, DICK AND BREAST ENLARGEMENT, MALARIA, BACTERIAL DIARRHEA HEART DISEASE., JOINT PAIN, STOMACH PAIN,  DENGUE SCHIZOPHRENIA, POLIO,MULTIPLES SCLEROSIS, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, VAGINAL  DISCHARGE,  TUBERCULOSIS, ALZHEIMER , PENIS ENLARGEMENT, PARKINSON'S, to get your rid kindly via his email:   drrealakhigbe@gmail.com    contact his number:  +2349010754824           website:  https://drrealakhigbe.weebly.com       you can still write me on Instagram to get more information. on Sarah Morgan.

    ReplyDelete
  2. There are some natural remedies that can be used in the prevention and eliminate diabetes totally. However, the single most important aspect of a diabetes control plan is adopting a wholesome life style Inner Peace, Nutritious and Healthy Diet, and Regular Physical Exercise. A state of inner peace and self-contentment is essential to enjoying a good physical health and overall well-being. The inner peace and self contentment is a just a state of mind.People with diabetes diseases often use complementary and alternative medicine. I diagnosed diabetes in 2010. Was at work feeling unusually tired and sleepy. I borrowed a cyclometer from a co-worker and tested at 760. Went immediately to my doctor and he gave me prescriptions like: Insulin ,Sulfonamides,Thiazolidinediones but Could not get the cure rather to reduce the pain but bring back the pain again. i found a woman testimony name Comfort online how Dr Akhigbe cure her HIV  and I also contacted the doctor and after I took his medication as instructed, I am now completely free from diabetes by doctor Akhigbe herbal medicine.So diabetes patients reading this testimony to contact his email     drrealakhigbe@gmail.com   or his Number   +2348142454860   He also use his herbal herbs to diseases like:SPIDER BITE, SCHIZOPHRENIA, LUPUS,EXTERNAL INFECTION, COMMON COLD, JOINT PAIN, EPILEPSY,STROKE,TUBERCULOSIS ,STOMACH DISEASE. ECZEMA, PROGENITOR, EATING DISORDER, LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTION,  DIABETICS,HERPES,HIV/AIDS, ;ALS,  CANCER , MENINGITIS,HEPATITIS A AND B,ASTHMA, HEART DISEASE, CHRONIC DISEASE. NAUSEA VOMITING OR DIARRHEA,KIDNEY DISEASE. HEARING  LOSSDr Akhigbe is a good man and he heal anybody that comes to him. here is email    drrealakhigbe@gmail.com    and his Number +2349010754824

    ReplyDelete